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Volume 7, issue 2 | Copyright
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 7, 481-487, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/jsss-7-481-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Regular research article 20 Sep 2018

Regular research article | 20 Sep 2018

Trace determination of cadmium content in Malaysian herbs using graphene–ionic liquid-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes

Muhammad Syafiq Nordin1, Yusairie Mohd1, Noor Fitrah Abu Bakar2, and Zainiharyati Mohd Zain1 Muhammad Syafiq Nordin et al.
  • 1Electrochemical Material and Sensor Research Group (EMAS), Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor, Malaysia
  • 2Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor, Malaysia

Abstract. A simple and effective method of square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) with screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) was used to determine the cadmium concentration in Malaysian herb samples. The optimization process involved the selection of an optimized pH, an acetate buffer as a supporting electrolyte, the deposition potential, deposition time and the surface modification process on an SPCE surface. The optimum conditions were a pH of 4.5, a deposition potential of −1.4V and a deposition time of 120s. The SPCE surface was modified with the fabrication of the graphene–ionic liquid composite as the sensing layer. Four herb samples were tested, where herbs A, D, M and C contained 0.0035, 0.0237, 0.0267 and 0.0251ppm of cadmium, respectively. The sensitivity of the proposed sensor was compared with an inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy (ICP–OES). The relative standard deviation (RSD) between the sensor and the ICP–OES indicated that the sensor was sensitive, as RSD was below 20% with range of 7.93% to 18.28%.

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Cadmium is one of heavy metals that can cause serious health complications if humans are excessively exposed. This research was conducted to detect the amount of cadmium inside herbal plants using a new sensor modified with graphene and ionic liquid. The amount of cadmium inside herbs A, D, M and C were 0.0035, 0.0237, 0.0267 and 0.0251 milligrams/litre, respectively. The results showed that the herbs were safe to be consumed. The developed sensor was comparable to existing detection methods.
Cadmium is one of heavy metals that can cause serious health complications if humans are...
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