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Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems An open-access peer-reviewed journal
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Volume 6, issue 2
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 6, 303-325, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/jsss-6-303-2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 6, 303-325, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/jsss-6-303-2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Review paper 28 Aug 2017

Review paper | 28 Aug 2017

Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for biological analysis and food characterization: a review

Marco Grossi and Bruno Riccò Marco Grossi and Bruno Riccò
  • Department of Electrical Energy and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi” (DEI), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Abstract. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in which a sinusoidal test voltage or current is applied to the sample under test to measure its impedance over a suitable frequency range, is a powerful technique to investigate the electrical properties of a large variety of materials. In practice, the measured impedance spectra, usually fitted with an equivalent electrical model, represent an electrical fingerprint of the sample providing an insight into its properties and behavior. EIS is used in a broad range of applications as a quick and easily automated technique to characterize solid, liquid, semiliquid, organic as well as inorganic materials. This paper presents an updated review of EIS main implementations and applications.

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Electrical impedance spectroscopy, in which a sine-wave test voltage or current is applied to the sample under test to measure its impedance over a suitable frequency range, is a powerful technique to investigate the electrical properties of a large variety of materials. This paper presents an updated review of EIS main applications such as measure of bacterial concentration, analysis of human body composition and characterization of food products, as well as other non-biological applications.
Electrical impedance spectroscopy, in which a sine-wave test voltage or current is applied to...
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