Journal cover Journal topic
Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems An open-access peer-reviewed journal
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 6, 27-35, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Regular research article
23 Jan 2017
Sensor solutions for an energy-efficient and user-centered heating system
Moritz Hein1, Ralf Stöber1, Michael Meiler1, Daniel Schaller1, Rebecca Zehle1, Gerhard Fischerauer1, Jochen Bauer2, Johannes Bürner2, Jörg Franke2, Thomas Becher3, Martin Feller4, and Joachim Maul5 1Chair of Measurement and Control Systems and Center of Energy Technology (ZET), University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
2Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
3TBE-Hof, 95028 Hof, Germany
4Frenzelit Werke GmbH, 95460 Bad Berneck, Germany
5ait-deutschland GmbH, 95359 Kasendorf, Germany
Abstract. In contrast to conventional hydronic heating systems, in which the air is used as a medium for the convective heat transfer, an alternative approach is based on the usage of infrared (IR) radiant heating foils. These foils, which are applied to the walls and the ceiling of a laboratory, can be controlled individually. This leads to the possibility of heating the room zonewise and only when a person is present in a zone. A local comfortable climate is provided only in occupied zones, with the remaining zones being kept at a lower base temperature. Consequently, the measurement system has to detect persons in each zone and to determine the putative thermal comfort at relevant locations in the room. For the first problem, we examined and evaluated different sensor types capable of localizing persons without infringing on their anonymity. For the second problem, we used the fact that the thermal comfort mainly depends on the operative temperature (Li et al., 2010; DIN EN ISO 7730, 2006; de Dear and Brager, 2002). According to Simone et al. (2007), this temperature can be measured directly by an easily producible, planar sensor. The sensors were integrated in a wireless sensor network which consists of Wi-Fi-capable microcontroller boards, wireless smart home equipment, a Wi-Fi router, and a server.

Citation: Hein, M., Stöber, R., Meiler, M., Schaller, D., Zehle, R., Fischerauer, G., Bauer, J., Bürner, J., Franke, J., Becher, T., Feller, M., and Maul, J.: Sensor solutions for an energy-efficient and user-centered heating system, J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 6, 27-35,, 2017.

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Short summary
We have analyzed the requirements of a smart heating system and, in particular, the necessary sensors and their integration in a control system. The system comprises temperature and localization sensors as measuring elements and heating foils as actuators. The system components were studied in a demonstrator room, and the entire heterogeneous system has now been deployed in an apartment for further field studies during the heating season of 2016/2017.
We have analyzed the requirements of a smart heating system and, in particular, the necessary...